120 | Page strategy by the Indian . . . many also believe that Pakistanâs military would be jeopardized if Jammu and Kashmir went to India. 22 Pakistan claims Kashmir as her jugular vein, her lifeline, an unfinished agenda of partition and core of Pakistanâs i deological survival. Historically Pakistan has viewed its dispute with India as a key determinant of its strategic behaviour in the international arena. Kashmir has a geo – strategic, economic and military significance for Pakistan. As for military importanc e is concerned, there are thirteen routes to Siachen Glacier, the highest military base of India and Pakistan. There is only one route for India. 23 Without Kashmir, Silk route to China will be greatly endangered and there will be no link with China – a time tested ally and friend of Pakistan. In 1963 Pakistan ceded illegal the Kashmir territory of 5,180 sq. km. in Gilgit to China to seek nuclear know – how from that country. The Chinese have turned the ancient Silk – Route which passes through this area into mod ern road that connects Gilgit with China which is already linked with Abbatabad and Muree in Pakistan. There will be no ground defence of Pakistan if the rivers and canals of Pakistan are dried up. The Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1951, described the str ategic value of Kashmir to Pakistan as, Kashmir is very important . . . it is a vital necessity for our survival. Kashmir as you will see from this map is like a cap on the head of Pakistan. If I allow India to have this cap on our head then I am always at the mercy of India the strategic position of Kashmir is such that without it Pakistan cannot defend itself against an unscrupulous government that might come in India . 24 The importance of Kashmir to Pakistan as the lifeline can be well – understood by havin g a look at the map of Pakistan. Three out of six rivers, which run through Pakistan, originates from Kashmir namely Rivers Indus, Jhelum and Chenab where as remaining three namely Rivers Ravi, Sutlej and Bias originate from India.
Pakistanâs agricultural life to a great extent depends on Kashmir. Economically, the waters of the Indus, Jhelum and Chenab, which originate through Kashmir, are vital to the agricultural life of Pakistan. Kashmir and Canal water are Pakistanâs life line as Military ruler Field M arshal Muhammad Ayub Khan was of the opinion that both the Kashmir and Canal water Disputes are matters of life and death to Pakistan . 25 In 1979, Pakistani Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto pledged to fight for a thousand years for the cause of oppressed Kashmir i Muslims. Gilgit – Baltistan is strategically very important region because the Karakoram Highway, the highest paved international road in the world, links Pakistan with china. In 2009, Islamabad signed an agreement with Beijing for mega energy project in G ilgit – Baltistan, a Neighbour of Chinaâs Xianging province. Burzila pass which links Kashmir valley – gilgit retained with Pakistan. This is a strategic advantage for Pakistan if her army could descend into Kashmir Valley from Gilgit side in case of resumptio n of hostilities. Kashmir is an important strategic location from where it is easy for both the countries to attack on each other that is why both the countries have deployed heavy forces at Kashmirâs border. Geopolitics of Resources: The Secret of Pakist an Policy Perhaps the most vital interest of Pakistan in Kashmir is for water resources. From economic point of view, Kashmir, as mentioned earlier, is the lifeline of Pakistan. Pakistan has continuously focussed upon the importance of water. The fact is u nderstood by the speech of Hafiz Saeed, the chief of Jamat – ud – Dawa, in September 16, 2003 said, âAll the deposits of water are in Indian Kashmir. The only way by which the economic prosperity of Pakistan can be granted and its farms can be prevented from g etting barren is to increase its efforts in wresting control of Indian occupied Kashmir, only if Kashmir is freed form Indian control, can Pakistanâs interest be safeguardedâ. 26 President of POK (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir) Sardar Mohammad Anwar Khan a decad e earlier said that Pakistanâs economy is dependent upon Kashmir he further said in a public forum, Kashmiris are fighting for security, strength and prosperity of Kashmir . . . Kashmir is important as Pakistanâs water resources originate in Kashmir. Sarda r Sikander Hayat, Prime Minister of POK said in a seminar on March 6, 2003, âwithout the rivers of Kashmir Pakistan will become desert. The freedom fighters of Kashmir are in reality fighting for Pakistanâs water securityâ. 27 The Rivers of Sind, Jhelum, Che nab and Ravi provide the main drainage system for Pakistan. All these rivers originate in Kashmir and run into Pakistan because that is the natural lay of the land. All major valleys also open towards Pakistan as well. Agriculture in Pakistan is dependent on waters of these rivers and, therefore, Kashmir provides the life – line to Pakistan. Founder of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah termed Kashmir to be the Jugular vein of Pakistan. First of all, the issue goes back to the year 1947. But more important than any thing else is its strategic location. Kashmir is located at a place from where out of five rivers that flow into Pakistan four of them originate from Kashmir. It is true that a treaty has been signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, which divided the di stribution of the waters coming from these rivers. But Pakistanis feel that in a major conflict, India could shut off the waters from the rivers. It is interesting to note that during the 1965, 1971 wars, limited wars of 1985 and 1999; India did not shut o ff water as it very easily could do. The famous Indus Water Treaty of 1960 between India and Pakistan divide the Indus river basin with Pakistan having effective control of three western rivers (Indus, Jhelum and Chenab) and India having an effective contr ol on three eastern rivers (Ravi, Sutlej and Beas). Indus water treaty has favoured Pakistan. This division provided Pakistan with 56% of the catchment area and only 31% to India. In Pakistan over 80% of the cropland is
121 | Page irrigated. The country has the world âs largest contiguous irrigation network. The river of Indus basin provide 60% of the water utilized for irrigation while ground account for the rest. Indus water treaty has benefited Pakistan. Keeping in view, Pakistan cannot ignore this region, interesti ng but sad is that Pakistan is not dealing this region with soft hand and their strategy shows that they are concerned with the resources and tries to hijack Kashmir only through the veil of cross border terrorism, guerrilla fighters, if it is not so why P akistanâs Inter – Service Intelligence (ISI) is supporting Jihad in Kashmir. Why Pakistanâs Army violates cease fire perpetually on border sectors. This shows that Pakistan does not want peace in Indian held Kashmir. ISI and Army are two sides of the same co in. 28 If Pakistan stops breeding terrorism, violating ceasefire on border sectors, gun culture, cross border terrorism, and joins hand with India for future prosperity of their state in socio – economic – cultural perspectives, surely the two siblings of South Asia would be the economic giants of the continent in future. Militancy: Human and Economic Loss From the last 24 years, the problem is in Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir, there witnessed a mushrooming growth of terrorism and militancy in the sta te supported by Pakistanâs born terrorist organisations like, HuM, JeM, etc. These organisations have nexus with the Kashmirâs groups like Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), Mahaz – e – Azaadi, Kashmir Liberation Army, Muslim United Front (MUF) Al – Fate h, etc. These organisations have two divergent approach, some wants Azaadi (independence) while others are pro – Pakistan. Riggings in 1987 election in Jammu and Kashmir, President Rule from 1990 to 1996 and distrust in Indian government is highly responsib le for alienation and militancy in Kashmir. With the help of Hasim Qureshi, an Indian airline hijacker, Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) began to circulate the pamphlet with the prospects of Kashmir Independence from India. 29 Their publicity emerge d from kidnappings of kith and kin of top leaders with the prospects of securing their arrested counterparts. Rubiya Sayeed and Nadia Soz, the daughters of Mufti Sayeed and Saif Ud Din Soz respectively are the living examples of their strategy. One of the devastating turmoil in Kashmir was that insecurity forced the Kashmiri pundits to left their homes. Panun Kashmir wrote that 350,000 Kashmiri Pandits expelled from the valley when militancy emerged. Women and Kashmiri Pandits were the frequent victims of s uch movement. Since 1989 around 2156 unidentified bodies were buried in unmarked graves, nearly 50,000 people have been killed. The parents of Displaced Persons have claimed that around 10,000 people have been missing since the separatist revolt from 1989.
30 All Party Hurriyat Conference Azad Jammu and Kashmir disclosed that from 1989 to 15 Oct. 2012, 93,274 Kashmiris died, 6,969 custodial killings, 1,17,345 arrest and destruction of 1,05,861 houses, Indian security forces orphaned over 1,07,351 children, widowed 22,728 women and 9,920 women were gang – raped. 31 Many moderates were also the victims of the separatist movement. Separatists are trying every trick up their sleeve to galvanize the public to create a state of chaos and uncertainty in the valley, an d the tussle between the separatist and the centre is likely to continue for long. 32 The JKLF remained very active in the first decade of the movement and their objective was, âfreedom is our birth right, we will all die, but we will never give it up. We re fuse to remain in India as subjugated slaves . . . our struggle is for one thing only: Azaadi . 33 In such a situation, Pakistan played an overt role and get an opportunity to make hay while the sun shines. Armed Forces Special Power (Jammu and Kashmir) Act (AFSPA) of 1990, till date, gave certain special powers to the forces. People of Kashmir are not in favour of AFSPA as AFSPA gave extraordinary powers to âarrest, without warrant, any persons who has committed a cognizable offence or against whom a reasona ble suspicion exists . . . . the power to break, open the lock of any door, almirah, safe, box, cupboard, drawer, package or other thing, if the key thereof is withheldâ 34 The tourism, the economic source of the valley since the emergence of extremism cripp led. The number of tourists visiting the state per year had gone down from 6, 00,000 – 7, 00,000 in the pre – militancy days to a few thousands in the following years. It is estimated that the state lost 27 million tourists from 1989 – 2002 leading to tourism revenue loss to the tune of US $ 3.6 billion. The state has also felt the direct impact of conflict in terms of huge damage caused by violent incidents, taking its toll on both public as well as private properties including gutting of hundreds of governmen t buildings, educational buildings, hospitals, bridges, private houses and shops. Reportedly from 1989 to 2002, over 1,151 government buildings, 643 educational buildings, 11 hospitals, 337 bridges, 10,729 private houses and 1,953 shops have been gutted in some 5,268 attacks on infrastructure. The enormity of economic damage due to militancy can be gauged by the fact that the estimates of damage till December 1996 were approximately INR 4 billion. 35 The economic condition of the state told that 21.63% (24.2 1 lakh) population of Jammu and Kashmir is Below Poverty line (BPL) out of which 98% (22 lakh) and 2% (2.21 lakh) live in rural and urban areas respectively. 36 India and Pakistan due to their hostile relations are suffering from economic benefits in the Sou th Asian sub continent. Strategic Foresight groupâs study predicts that India and Pakistan have the potential to enjoy a trade of about US $1 billion if the past hostile environment continues and US $13.25 billion if peace prevails on a cumulative basis fo r the next five years (2004 – 08). The opportunity cost or loss is thus about US
II. Conclusion Kashmir due to its physical contiguity with India and Pakistan, water resources, physical access with the Great Silk Route (Ancient Economic trade route, Starts from China, runs to Europe via Central As ia) has a great geo – political, economic, strategic and military importance for both countries. The present situation in Kashmir since 1989 has dual dimension for India; i.e. internal which exist between India and Jammu and Kashmir and external between Indi a and Pakistan. Kashmir is preyed by the merchants of death who continuously breaking its bones. It is neither death nor suicide. The enemy tries to sink it into the sea, make it desert, the blood. India and Pakistan should project it in such a way that f uture generation should not took arms rather work for Kushaal Kashmir (prosperous Kashmir). The two should learn a lesson from Germany and France who was once bitter neighbour, fought against each other in the two global wars now are the part of strong Eu ropean Union, sharing a free border, both using the same Euro. Their previous conflicts have forgotten and their citizens enjoy better quality of life than their predecessors. The people of Indo – pak before partition fought against British Colonialism but a fter partition are fighting with each other. India and Pakistan can live like France and Germany but the problem is that both are in race in military and arms which made the buffer as highest militarised zone in the world. India and Pakistan should repair the damage they have done from past 65 years and pledge to cooperate in economic, technological and social areas. This can be achieved by soft hand, making Line of Control irrelevant or Line of cooperation to diminish and eliminate their mistrust and stub bornness. Pakistan needs generally a democratic state and stop breeding terrorism. India on the other should demilitarise, chide into respecting human rights of Kashmir and should give the pre 1953 status to J&K. Kashmiris should give up supporting Indepe ndence and pro – Pakistan sentiments and keep in mind that if they get independence, their
uture will connected with three triangular nuclear weapons states and any future conflict between the nuclear states will have direct and intimate impact on Kashmir. If they whole heartedly lend their support to merger with India, they too will find that all doors of progress will open for them and one day India will have a democratic elected Kashmiri Prime Minister. Notes . Shaheen Showkat Dar, âShadow of Unresolve d conflicts on the security of States: A Conceptual Analysis of Kashmir conflict,â South Asian journal of Socio – Political Studies Vol.12, (2) (Jan – June 2012), 40. . Sumantra Bose, Kashmir. Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, (New Delhi: Vistaar, 2003), 9. . S. N. Prasad, Operations in Jammu and Kashmir 1947 – 48 , (Dehradun: Natraj, 2005), 1 . Shaheen Showkat, âShadow of Unresolved conflicts on the security of States: A Conceptual Ana lysis of Kashmir conflict,â 44. . Sumantra Bose, Kashmir Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, 15.
. Shaheen Showkat, âShadow of Unresolved conflicts on the security of States: A Conceptual Ana lysis of Kashmir conflict,â 44. . Prem Nath Bazaz, Inside Kashmir, (Srinagar: 1941, Mirp ur: Verinagh, 1987) pp. 252 – 53. . Sumantra Bose. Kashmir Roots of Con flict, Paths to Peace, 19. . Christophe Jaffrelot, Pakistan: Nationalism without nation , (New Delhi: Manohar, 2002), 12. . Ajay Dershan Behera and Mathew Joseph C, Pakistan in a Changing Strategic Context , (New Delh i: Knowledge world, 2004), 228. . M. J Akbar, I ndia, the Siege Within: Challenges to a nationâs Unity , (Harmonds worth: Penguin, 1985), 227 – 228. . Alastair Lamb, Incomplete Partition: The Genesis of the Kashmir Dispute 1947 – 1948 , (United Kingdom: Oxford, 1997), p. 121 . Shaheen Showkat, â Shadow of Unresolv ed conflicts on the security of States: A Conceptual Analysis of Kashmir conflict,â 43 . C.P. Gupta, âMirpur Carnage,â The Daily Excelsior Sunday Magazine , November 25, 2012, 4 . C. Dasgupta, War and Diplomacy in Kashmir 1947 – 48 (New Delhi: Sage, 2002), 41. . Ar if Jamal, Shadow War: The Untold Story of Jihad in Kashmir ( N ew Delhi: Vij Books, 2009), 41. . P. Sahadevan, Conflict and Peace Making in South Asia , (New Delhi: Lancer, 2001), 221. . Dasgupta, War and Diplomacy in Kashmir 1947 – 48 71. . Sekhar, August 29,20 08, ( 1:30 p.m. ), Bleeding Wound Kashmir is Seeping Again, accessed from . Shabir Choudhary, Gilgit – Baltistan: A Battleground for Future War . Accessed from . Shaheen Showkat, â Shadow of Unreso lved conflicts on the security of States: A Conceptual Analysis of Kashmir conflict,â 46. . Behera (ed.), Pakistan in a Changing Strategic Context, 212 . Importance of Kashmir for Pakistan , . . Admin, Novembwer 16, 2010, Importance of Kashmir for India and Pakistan and La test Developments, . Ib id. . Sandeep Waslekar, The Final Settlement Reconstructing India – Pakistan Relation, Strategic Foresight Group , Mumbai, 2005, 48. . Ibid. . Kashmir: The View from Islamabad . International Crisis Group , Decembe r 4, 2003, 6, assessed from . Yog Raj Sharma, Political Dynamics of Jammu and Kashmir, (Jammu: Radha K rishnan Anand & Co, 2002), 482. . News.Oneindia. All Kashmir Killings since 1989 to be probed: Omar, June 23, 2011, Acessed from . . Sajad Shoukat, Massacre and Harassment in Kashmir, November 16, 2012, accessed from . Zainab Akhter, âKashmir: why Peace is Fragileâ Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies , July 12, 2012 accessed, . . Sumantra Bose, Challenge in Kashmir: Democracy, Self – Determination and a Just Peace, (N ew Delhi: New Delhi. 1997), 17. . For detail see Armed Forces Special Power (Jammu and K ashmir) Act 1990. No, 21, 1990. . Se ema Shekhawat, âFragile Kashmir, Costs and Hopes for Peace â, Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Science , Vol. 1, (3), 20